Saturday, 28 December 2013

Things Around Us

We see many things around us. Some move on their own, while others need something to move them. For example, a cockroach and a tiger move on their own, but a table and a chair move only when you push or pull them. So, we can divide things around us into two groups—living and non-living things. Plants, animals and human beings are living things. Chair, table, rock, sand, hills, etc. are non-living things.

Characteristics of Living Things :

Structural Organization :

The five levels of organization for living things pertain only to multicellular organisms and not to unicellular organisms. Unicellular organisms are only composed of one cell and act independently of other cells. In multicellular organisms, cells work and communicate with one another to perform the basic processes of life. 

- Cells : Cells are the tiniest living organisms and are the building blocks of organs. Cells are the first level of organization for living things. Examples of cells in living things include red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells and brain cells.

- Tissues : Tissues are made of cells and are the second level of organization for living things. The four main types of tissues found in the human body are muscle, nerve, epithelial and connective tissue. The three types of muscle tissue are smooth muscle tissue, skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

- Organs : Organs are the third level of organization for living things and are composed of tissue. Examples of organs in animals include the heart, lung, brain kidneys and stomach. Examples of organs in plants include roots, stems, flowers and the stamen.

- Organ Systems : Organ systems are groups of at least two organs that work in combination to perform specific tasks for the organism they're a part of. The eleven organ systems found in the human body are the digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, reproductive system, respiratory system, muscular system and integumentary system.

Energy :

Plants and animals, use various forms of energy for the development of their bodies. The complete use of chemical energy they use to carry out their life processes is called metabolism. Plants use the energy from the sun or solar energy to carry out photosynthesis which is the process for making their food (glucose). They are hence known as Autotrophs. Animals and humans, however cannot produce their own food and are dependent on plants and other animals for their food and hence they are called the Heterotrophs.

Growth :

One of the rule of nature is growth which is followed by all life forms. As development is an involuntary process, every cell in a living entity has to age. Growth and change is a part of all living organisms as cells divide to give rise to new and identical ones. Sometimes due to some genetic defects, during differentiation, some cells mutate to form other types of cells and result in complex organisms. This process of constant development and growth is also called organogenesis.

Reproduction :

All organisms reproduce to continue their species' life. Plants and animals have a reproductive system which is completely developed at puberty. There are two types of reproduction prevalent in nature, viz. sexual and asexual. The sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material to give rise to a single zygote that further develops into a bigger organism. The asexual reproduction involves the splitting of one organism or cell to form two separate individuals of the same species.

Organization :

Every living thing is highly organized when it comes to the pattern or built of the body. Plants as well as animals have very complicated cell structures arranged very uniquely in the different organs. The cells form organelles, and organelles form organs. The organs make up the various parts of the organism. This is a network which every cell follows.

Death :

Whatever is created has to come to an end. Both plants and animals have limited life spans during which they go through their life processes like development and reproduction. As the cells age over a particular time period, these overgrown cells start becoming weak and lose their functions. They can't survive the atmospheric pressures and give in to them eventually. This is called death. They all have a particular age they live up to and then surrender to nature.

Other Characteristics :

Some of the other characteristics include homeostasis, which is the process to maintain stable internal conditions for survival. These conditions have to be maintained for body temperature, heartbeat, water content, etc. When the homeostasis is regulated, the metabolism of the body is regulated and the living things stay healthy and fit. Movement is also one such characteristic. These movements depend on each species of plants and animals. Adaptation and defense are considered as common traits too. Every living entity has to adapt to certain conditions for survival and if it can't then it won't survive. It is their right to protect themselves from predators.

Evolution is a type of miracle that has accompanied us for billions of years and is still in process. Eventually all living entities complement each other through their characteristics and that is what Darwin's theory of evolution is all about.

Environment :

Environment is the sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage. An ecosystem is a biological environment and all the living and nonliving components of that environment. The living components are referred to as the biotic components, while the nonliving components are referred to as abiotic. The biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem are intertwined, as the interaction between the two factors determines the composition of the ecosystem. 

Biotic Components : 
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem. A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors include human influence. 

- Plants : If you're not a microbe and you're not an animal, chances are you are a plant. There are loads of species of plants on Earth. Just as there is a system of classification for animals, there is also a system of classification for plants. Because plants adapt so well to any climate, scientists need a way to organize the hundreds of thousands of species.

- Animals : Animals cannot make their own food, as green plants do, thus they are called heterotrops. Both animals and plants need substances called nutrients in order to grow. Plants absorb nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium from the soil. These nutrients enter the bodies of animals when they eat plants or the flesh of other animals. After these plants and animals die, their bodies decomposes and nutrients reach back to the soil.

Abiotic Components :
In biology, abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. Abiotic factors, while generally downplayed, can have enormous impact on evolution. Abiotic components are aspects of geodiversity.They can also be recognised as "abiotic pathogens".

From the viewpoint of biology, abiotic influences may be classified as light or more generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical surrounding composed of the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as soil. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Not to mention pressure and even sound waves if working with marine, or deep underground, biome.

- Climate : Climate includes the rainfall, temperature and wind patterns that occur in an area, and is the most important abiotic component of a grassland ecosystem. Temperature, in tandem with precipitation, determines whether grasslands, forests, or some combination of these two, form. The amount and distribution of the rainfall an area receives in a year influences the types and productivity of grassland plants.

- Parent Material and Soil : Parent material is the geological material that lies on top of the bedrock and is the foundation on which soil has developed. Much of the parent material underlying BC's grasslands was deposited as the last ice sheets melted away. The actual composition of the material at any specific location depends on how and where it was deposited in relation to the ice. In the Rocky Mountain Trench, for example, some material was deposited under a moving glacier, while on the Chilcotin plateau some was deposited under a stationary ice sheet; in many places throughout the grasslands material was carried and deposited by water on, in, or under the ice.

Habitat :

Thus in nature, biotic and abiotic components are closely interrelated. Biotic components interact with one another too. A group of independent organisms that live in same region and interact with one another form a biotic community. A biotic community includes plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Master YashRaj Kandya
Big RJ Neetu On BigFM 92.7 Indore
Master YashRaj Kandya
Asia's Youngest AeroSoft Certified Blogger
Student of Class 6
National Public School Indore 452005

Blog Help 
Preeti Bagad [BE(CS)] 
SW Engineer Cum Blogger

On Line Assistence :


  1. ATH is an online assignment help company assisting in all types of

    assignments like science, English, MBA, dissertation and so on.

  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

  3. Once more, while students are required, the emotions are even increased as well as uncooked, consequently knowing someone that's aim will help be sure that your plus your kid's desires are increasingly being served. It is usually helpful to have someone to assist you understand the course of action and the way it functions along with will keep a person based along the route. Efficiency is the one other reason to employ a divorce attorney.
    Divorce Lawyer Virginia
    There is no doubt how the legal agent may have your best interest, nevertheless they is not going to make irrational selections depending on emotions. They are going to rather starting selections on honest settlement along with legal methods. If an individual goes via a divorce using kids, these kind of feelings are increased, having one other reason to rent a household regulation professional. Four. Efficient- If an individual is attempting to complete their unique divorce, it will require a great deal of investigation, time and energy to know the legal declaring method, phrases and procedures.